What are energy points?

Energy points measure effort on Khan Academy. Learners earn more energy points for pushing the edge of their knowledge. They are not a measure of mastery or ability.   

As of 9/1/2013, you get points for learning tasks:

-- bonus points for completing computer programming challenges or answering 
-- 750 points for each video completed

For practice problems: 
-- 75 points if it's in a practice task for something you're "needs practice" in
-- 5 if it's in a practice task that you are "practiced" or greater in
-- 50 if it's in a mastery task
You also get points for completing tasks:
-- 100 for a practice task
-- 300 for a mastery task

Badges are awarded for behaviors - some related to points, but not necessarily (e.g., proficiencies on exercises, speed, or other behaviors like building community or engaging with computer science).